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Citation Manuals

Basic Bibliography Rules

A bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in your paper. The bibliography is usually placed at the end of the work and should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading. All bibliographic entries are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. 

Keep these basic rules in mind when creating your bibliography:

  • All entries in the bibliography will include the author (or editor, compiler, translator), title, and publication information.
  • The author’s name is inverted in the bibliography where the last name is first and separated from the first name with a comma. If an author is not listed this rule applies to compilers, translators, etc.
  • Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. are placed in quotation marks.
  • The year of publication is listed after the publisher or journal name.
  • In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by periods. Note that this differs from the format of footnotes and endnotes.

Chapter or Part of Edited Book

From Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations, The Chicago Manual of Style of Online:

In a note, cite specific pages. In the bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or part.

Bibliography entry

Thoreau, Henry David. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.

 

Source: Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations; The Chicago Manual of Style Online

Book citation

Example:

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.

Smith, Zadie. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press, 2016.

Source: Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations; The Chicago Manual of Style Online

Journal citation

From Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations, The Chicago Manual of Style of Online:

In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.

Example:

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.

Satterfield, Susan. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 165–76.

Source: Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations; The Chicago Manual of Style Online

Website Content

Example:

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Bouman, Katie. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.

Google. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017. https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Yale University. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.

Source: Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations; The Chicago Manual of Style Online