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Citation Manuals


The Chicago-style allows two different formats to be used.

Notes and Bibliography (NB)

  • Used primarily in literature, history, and the arts. 
  • Sources cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. 
  • Notes correspond to superscripts in the text.
  • A separate bibliography lists all sources.


  • Used primarily in the sciences and social sciences.
  • In text, sources are cited in parentheses by author's last name and publication year.
  • Each in-text citation corresponds to entry in a reference list with full bibliographic information. 

Source: The Chicago Manual of Style Online

Footnote or Endnote

Below are examples of notes for different types of sources. 

  • Book:

1.  Jack Kerouac, The Dharma Bums (New York: Viking Press, 1958), 128.  

  • Book with editor:

2. Edward B. Tylor, Researchers into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, ed. Paul Bohannan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), 194.

  • Book chapter:

3. Gloria Anzaldúa, “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” in Borderlands: The New Mestiza - La Frontera, (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987), 53-64.  

  • Journal article:

4. Susan Peck MacDonald, “The Erasure of Language,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 619.

  • Newspaper article:

5. Nisha Deo, “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer,” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.


Source for Examples

Notes:1-3: Purdue OWL, General Model for Citing Books in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography System

Notes 4-5: Purdue OWL, Periodicals

Note Format

The first time a source is cited use a long form note. All subsequent citations to the same source will use a short form note. 

  • Full Note

1. First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

  • Shortened Note

2. Last name, Title of Book, page number.