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SWK 452: Research & Program Evaluation (Gresham): Annotated Bibliography

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Annotated Bibliography

What is an annotated bibliography?

A bibliography is the list of sources that you've used when conducting research on a specific topic. Also called a References (APA Citation Style) or Works Cited (MLA) page, your bibliography can consist of books, articles, webpages, videos, etc.--essentially, any source that you want to include in your research paper/project.

An annotation is an evaluation of a particular resource. More than just a summary, an annotation also analyzes and assesses.

The annotated bibliography is your list of sources, alphabetized by the authors' last names and carefully evaluated for meaning, purpose, and usefulness.

How do I compile my annotated bibliography?

  1. Create a list of credible sources.
  2. Cite each source using the APA citation style.
  3. Alphabetize your list according to APA rules.
  4. Write a paragraph after each citation, annotating that source.

Please visit the APA Citation Style portion of this guide for help citing your sources!

What should I include in each annotation?

Consider the following questions when working on your annotated bibliography:

  • Who are the authors?
    • What is their background?
    • Do they have the knowledge/expertise to present this information?
  • What are the authors' main arguments?
    • Do they have evidence that supports their claims?
  • Who is their target audience?
  • Why did the authors produce this information?
  • Is the information reliable?
    • If so, how useful is that information?
  • How will this source fit in to your research paper/project?
    • Does the information support your argument?
    • Do multiple sources provide the same information?


Cornell University Library. (2019, July 18). How to prepare an annotated bibliography: The annotated bibliography. Retrieved July 24, 2019, from

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (2019). Annotated bibliographies. Retrieved July 24, 2019, from

Burke, S. L., Cadet, T., & Maddux, M. (2018). Chronic health illnesses as predictors of mild cognitive impairment among African American older adults. Journal of the National Medical Association, 110(4), 314-325. doi:
Despite the higher prevalence of Alzheimer's diagnoses among African Americans, even when sociodemographic factors are taken into consideration, there have been few studies conducted that focus on this segment of the population. Burke, Cadet, and Maddux (2018) analyzed data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set to examine potential associations between several health conditions (e.g., congestive heart failure, diabetes) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). They found that African Americans who suffered from either a traumatic brain injury or inactive thyroid conditions were more likely to suffer from MCI than those who had neither condition (Burke et al., 2018). Through their research, Burke et al. (2018) hope to develop intervention techniques targeted at the African American community to reduce their risk of MCI, including lifestyle behavior modifications and increased awareness of the disease, using practitioners to feed important information and relevant resources to their clients.

Mayeda, E. R., Glymour, M. M., Quesenberry, C. P., & Whitmer, R. A. (2016). Inequalities in dementia incidence between six racial and ethnic groups over 14 years. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 12(3), 216–224. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2015.12.007
Even though the main objective of the National Alzheimer's Plan (NAPA) is to reduce the racial and ethnic disparities of dementia incidence, little research has been conducted among diverse populations of the United States to determine if such a disparity truly exists, and what research has been done has focused only on a small number of races. Mayeda, Glymour, Quesenberry, and Whitmer (2016) sought to fill that research void by sampling almost 275,000 healthcare members, approximately 60,000 of which had been diagnosed with dementia, spread across six different racial and ethnic groups. They found that African Americans, followed closely by American Indians/Alaska Natives, were at the highest risk for developing dementia (Mayeda et al., 2016). Their findings are significant because dementia rates varied more than sixty percent between racial groups, which has provided a valuable benchmark for NAPA. Mayeda et al. (2016) further discuss some potential reasons behind this racial disparity, including differences in vascular disease risk factors and patterns of selective survival.