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MLS 452: Research Methods & Project: Annotated Bibliography

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Annotated Bibliography

What is an annotated bibliography?

A bibliography is the list of sources that you've used when conducting research on a specific topic. Also called a References (APA Citation Style) or Works Cited (MLA) page, your bibliography can consist of books, articles, webpages, videos, etc.--essentially, any source that you want to include in your research paper/project.

An annotation is an evaluation of a particular resource. More than just a summary, an annotation also analyzes and assesses.

The annotated bibliography is your list of sources, alphabetized by the authors' last names and carefully evaluated for meaning, purpose, and usefulness.

How do I compile my annotated bibliography?

  1. Create a list of credible sources.
  2. Cite each source using the APA citation style.
  3. Alphabetize your list according to APA rules.
  4. Write a paragraph after each citation, annotating that source.

Please visit the APA Citation Style portion of this guide for help citing your sources!

What should I include in each annotation?

Consider the following questions when working on your annotated bibliography:

  • Who are the authors?
    • What is their background?
    • Do they have the knowledge/expertise to present this information?
  • What are the authors' main arguments?
    • Do they have evidence that supports their claims?
  • Who is their target audience?
  • Why did the authors produce this information?
  • Is the information reliable?
    • If so, how useful is that information?
  • How will this source fit in to your research paper/project?
    • Does the information support your argument?
    • Do multiple sources provide the same information?


Cornell University Library. (2019, July 18). How to prepare an annotated bibliography: The annotated bibliography. Retrieved July 24, 2019, from

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (2019). Annotated bibliographies. Retrieved July 24, 2019, from

Geddes, G. C., Basel, D., Frommelt, P., Kinney, A., & Earing, M. (2017). Genetic testing protocol reduces costs and increases rate of genetic diagnosis in infants with congenital heart disease. Pediatric Cardiology, 38(7), 1465-1470.
Despite recommendations for genetic testing and evaluation of infants with critical congenital heart disease, standardized protocols for chromosomal microarray have not been widely adopted. Researchers from both the Department of Pediatrics at the Medical College of Wisconsin and the Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin’s Herma Heart Center (Geddes, Basel, Frommelt, Kinney, & Earing, 2017) introduced a genetic testing protocol to the department of pediatrics and all affected clinical divisions in April 2014. They used the Society for Thoracic Surgeons Database to compare pre-protocol and post-protocol diagnosis rates of 891 infants younger than one year old who had cardiac surgery, as well as costs per patient and per diagnosis. Not only did the rate of diagnosis significantly increase during the post-protocol period (from 26% to 36%), but the cost per patient and per diagnosis also decreased significantly (from $2,720.77 to $2,403.27 and from $11,427.24 to $6,321.65, respectively) (Geddes et al., 2017). The researchers hope that more institutions will start implementing similar cost-effective protocols for genetic testing of infants with critical cardiac disease in order to increase the identification of chromosomal anomalies.

Xu, L, Richman, A. R., Mitchell, L. C., Luo, H., Jiang, Y., Roy, S., & Floyd, A. E. (2018). Evaluating web-based educational modules on genetic testing for autism among parents of children with autism. American Journal of Health Behavior, 42(4), 3-12.
Even though the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics recommends genetic testing as part of the diagnosis process for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), many parents lack the knowledge necessary to make an informed decision regarding genetic testing. Xu et al. (2018) designed, implemented, and evaluated several educational modules that could potentially increase parental knowledge of available genetic tests, as well as changing parents’ attitudes towards testing their ASD-affected children. 53 biological parents of children diagnosed with ASD completed both pre- and post-test surveys and the five educational modules. There was a significant increase in participants’ knowledge scores after the training (from 11.5 to 17.9), with the greatest increases coming in the areas of genetic testing availability and the link between genes and autism (Xu et al., 2018). The slight increase in the participants’ intentions to pursue genetic testing for themselves, their child(ren), or their childr(ren)’s other biological parent was not statistically significant, but there was a high willingness (92.5%) to undergo genetic testing (Xu et al., 2018). Despite this non-random, non-representative sampling of participants, the study provides guidance for other educational outreach programs aimed at increasing parental knowledge of neurodevelopmental disorders. Such training and educational interventions allow parents to make evidence-based decisions concerning their children’s healthcare.